Agriculture in Egypt
Egypt's agricultural sector remains one of the most productive in the world, despite the small area of arable land and irregular and insufficient water supplies. Only about 3 % of the total area constitutes arable land. The rest is desert. The area of agricultural land in Egypt is confined to the Nile Valley and delta, with a few oases and some arable land in Sinai. The total cultivated area is 7.2 million feddans (1 feddan = 0.42 ha), Lack of forests, permanent meadows, or pastures places a heavy burden on the available arable land.
The Nile River provides Egypt with 70% of its water supply. In a 2019 report, measurements determined that agriculture uses more than 85% of the country’s share of the Nile, according to the Egyptian Center for Strategic Studies. However, due to drought, Egypt is “water-poor” because it provides 570 cubic meters of water per person per year. A country is water-poor when people do not have access to a sufficient amount of water, which is less than 1,000 cubic meters a year.
Egypt has a very arid climate, the rainfall does not exceed 190mm in the Mediterranean coasts and 60mm in the Nile delta, and even less than 25mm in the Upper Egypt. The country relies on irrigation, 99.8% of cropland was irrigated in 2020.
Egypt has two seasons of cultivation, one for winter and another for summer crops. Egypt hosts one of the oldest agricultural civilizations. The fertility with the Nile river banks and the delta has pushed the populations of all eras to settle down in an area covering less than 10% of the territory, with the rest all covered by the desert with the exception of a few oases. Agriculture in Egypt accounts for 11% of gross domestic product (GDP) and 23% of all jobs. It provides livelihood to about 55% of the population, which is rural to a large extent.
Crop production in Egypt
Field crops contribute some three-fourths of the total value of Egypt’s agricultural production, while the rest comes from livestock products, fruits and vegetables, and other specialty crops. Egypt's total agricultural crop production has increased by more than 20 percent in the past decade. During the same period, the rate of population growth has increased at a slightly higher rate than the increase in crop production. The major crops cultivated in Egypt are cotton, rice, maize and corn. Cotton is the major fiber crop cultivated in the country and the most exported crop. The country is the second producer in Africa after Mali. Egyptian long-staple cotton is well known for its fine quality; cotton has thus always the most profitable agricultural product in Egypt. However, the cotton production has been declining in the past decade. Rice is one the major cereal cultivated in the country grown on nearly 500 000 feddans. It is the second most exported crop after cotton. Egypt is the biggest producer of rice in Africa. Maize is the second most important crop (750 000 feddans), but at least 50 percent of its production is used for livestock and poultry feed. Egypt is third producer of corn after Nigeria and South Africa.
Despite being the major producer of wheat in Africa, Egypt remains one of the world’s largest importers of wheat. Imports of wheat between July 2018 and June 2019 are estimated at 12.5 million metric tons (MMT). The General Authority for Supply Commodities is Egypt’s largest wheat purchaser. It already has issued 24 tenders through February 2019, importing 6.13 MMT of milling wheat. Corn imports between July 2018 and June 2019 are estimated at reaching 9.3 million metric tons. Egypt’s yellow corn production covers less than 20 percent of its feed demand needs. Imports are supplementing the feed manufacturing industry’s expanded production.
Sugar cane is the main sugar crop in upper Egypt. About 90 percent of the yield is used for sugar extraction. Sugar beet also grows in large areas in the Nile delta, and contributes to the sugar industry in Egypt.
Food legumes include a number of bean crops that are used for human consumption, such as broad beans and soybeans.
Egyptian clover, berseem, is the major winter forage crop cultivated in the Nile Valley and delta. It is the most widely grown field crop and occupies an area which totals 1.2 million feddans.
Tomatoes are grown in three seasons - winter, summer and autumn - on about 3 percent of Egypt's total planted area. Losses in tomato crops have been large as a result of tomato leaf curl virus, early and late blight, and nematodes. Potatoes are the second most important vegetable after tomatoes, both in terms of cash value and total tonnage produced.
Citrus, primarily oranges that represent 85 percent of total citrus production, makes up 50 percent of total fruit production. The fruit-planted area has expanded over the last three decades to reach about 200 000 feddans. Other subtropical fruits are also grown in Egypt, including grapes, stone fruits and pome fruits.
Egypt’s major agricultural exports to the world are potatoes, cotton, and fresh fruit, primarily citrus. Most of Egypt’s exports are destined for the EU, Russia, North Africa and the Middle East. In 2018, Egyptian exports of food and agriculture products to the United States reached a record $151 million, up 19 percent or growing by $24.5 million compared to 2017. Main exports to the United States included processed fruit and vegetables, spices, essential oils, and herbs.
Livestock production in Egypt
Livestock production is an essential element of Egypt’s agricultural sector. The population has increased steadily between 2000 and 2013. In 2013, Egypt was self-sufficient in milk and eggs, and had a surplus of rice, potatoes, fresh vegetables, and citrus. According to the 2013 statistics, in Egypt there were:
- 4,950,000 cattles
- 4,200,000 buffaloes
- 5,450,000 sheep
- 4,350,000 goats
- 142,000 camels
- 127,000,000 chickens
Food security index
Egypt is the highest-ranking country in the northernmost part of the African continent, with 64.5 points in the global food security index. Nevertheless, in the three-year average between 2017 and 2019, 7.6 million people were insecure in terms of food. Bread is fundamental in the Egyptian diet. Although the country produced 8.9 million tons of wheat as of 2020, the excessive demand still leads Egypt to be the largest importer of wheat in the world, with significant power over the market.
Fishing industru in Egypt
Egypt has a long coastline, extending for about 2 500 km, together with a continuous continental shelf of about 53 000 km2 bordering the country on the north along the Mediterranean Sea coast and to the east along the Red Sea, with the Suez and Aqaba Gulfs. Moreover, Egypt has various inland resources, include the Nile River with many irrigation canals, six northern coastal lagoons opening to the Mediterranean Sea (Maruit, Edku, Burollus, Manzala, Port Fouad and Bardawil) and two opening to the Suez Canal (Timsah and Bitter Lakes), with two closed lakes (Qarun and Wadi Al Raiyan), and the great reservoir behind the Aswan High Dam (Lake Nasser). Recently, some small water bodies in the western desert have been redeveloped for fish production.
The fish production has climbed from 724,400 tons in 2000 to 1,371,800 tons in 2012. 15. Beehives number has significantly declined from 1,423,000 hives in 2000 to only one million hives in 2013. Therefore, the annual honey production declined from 8267 tons in 2000 to 5,066 tons in 2012. The fishing industry has a relatively minor direct role in the economy of Egypt, but nevertheless, domestic fish production makes a valuable contribution to the national food supply and to the traditional way of life, in which fish eating plays an important part. In addition it is a significant source of food for the tourist industry. In some cases, fishermen (especially in the Red Sea) sell their catch directly to restaurants or hotels. Fishing industry is also important for the livelihood of over 65 000 fishermen and other people employed full time in related activities (estimated at some 300 000 men).
The main fishing ground used by Egyptian vessels is the continental shelf off the Nile Delta, and may extend to the eastern side of Port Said and rarely to the western side of Alexandria. The continental shelf is narrow in the east and west comparable to the wider central Delta region. There are 9 fisheries centres along the coast with 4 developed fishing ports in Alexandria, Meaddea, Dumyat and Port Said. Landings in Mediterranean Sea represent about 45 percent of the total marine catch. About 40 percent of the landings were from purse seiners working day and night along the Mediterranean Coast. Sardine (Sardinella spp.) constitutes 30 percent of total Egyptian landings, followed by anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) (6 percent) and Bogue (Boops boops) (3 percent). The catch from other methods includes a variety of species – some 30 commercially sold species – but they constitute less than 2 percent of the total catch. The catch is dominated by shrimp (Penaeus spp.) (6 percent), cuttlefish ( Sepia spp. and Loligo spp.) (3 percent), red mullet (Mullus spp.) (3 percent), grey mullet (Mugil spp.) (3 percent), sea breams (Sparidae) (3 percent) and lizard fish (Saurida spp.) (2 percent). About 75 percent of the catch landed is at Dumyat, Port Said and Meaddea, where about 50 percent of the fleet and 60 percent of the total number of fishermen are based. There is no catch record for recreational fishing, although it is widely practised along the Mediterranean Coast.
The fisheries of the Red Sea are based on a long-standing traditional (artisanal) fishery where coral reefs spread along the Red Sea Coast and Gulf of Aqaba, with relatively shallow fishing grounds (maximum 70 m depth) with flat sandy bottoms in the Suez Gulf, the only area suitable for trawling. The narrow, reef-rich continental shelf of much of the coastline is suitable only for artisanal fishing with hook and line or inshore set net. The catch in the Gulf of Suez constitutes 44 percent of the total landing of the Red Sea fisheries, while the Red Sea contributes 34 percent and 21 percent comes from outside Egyptian territorial waters. The Gulf of Aqaba catch composed less than 1 percent of the regional landing. Catches include about 35 fish species groups, dominated by mackerel (Scomber spp.) (22 percent), lizard fish (Saurida undosquamis) (11 percent), snapper and emperors (Lutjanus spp. and Lethrinidae) (8 percent), threadfin bream (Nemipterus spp.) (7 percent), sardine (Sardinella spp.) (6 percent), grouper (Epinephelus spp.) (5 percent) and gray mullet (Mugil spp.) (5 percent). For conservation purposes, the number of trawl licences issued for fishing inside the Gulf of Suez is limited and fishing is not allowed from 1 June to 30 September each year. Recently, catching sea cucumber has become economically important and reached 139 tonne in 2001.
Egypt has about 8 716 km2 of inland waters, including rivers, lakes, reservoirs and brackish water lagoons. Both commercial and sport fishing take place on these waters. Some inland waters are regularly restocked with both marine and freshwater fish fry. The inland fishing fleet comprises over 38 500 small wooden boats (4–6 m in length) catching about 295 500 tonne, or 69 percent of Egyptian landings. Most of the fishermen are unregistered. There are about 270 registered landing sites and many unregistered.
Egypt is a country located in the northeastern corner of Africa. With a population of over 90 million people, it is the most populous country in Africa and the Arab world, as well as the third-most populous country in the world. Egypt has a long and storied history, having been home to some of the oldest civilizations on earth. The country is perhaps best known for its ancient pyramids and Sphinx, as well as its rich cultural heritage. Today, Egypt is a major tourist destination, attracting visitors from all over the world.
Egypt is a land of contrasts. The Sahara Desert covers much of the country, while the Nile River flows through the heart of it. This contrast is mirrored in the country's climate, which ranges from hot and dry in the desert to temperate and humid along the river.
The landscape of Egypt is mostly desert, with the Nile River running through its center. The river provides irrigation for agriculture and is a major source of water for the country. Egypt's climate is mostly desert, with hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters. The Nile River runs through the middle of the country, providing water for agriculture and industry.
Egypt has a long history of settlement and civilization. The first settlers are thought to have arrived in the Nile Valley around 6000 BCE. By 3000 BCE, the Egyptians had established a thriving agricultural society. Around this time, they also began to build the pyramids, which would become one of the most famous features of the Egyptian landscape.
The Egyptian landscape is home to a number of iconic landmarks. The most famous of these is the Great Pyramid of Giza, which was built around 2500 BCE. The pyramid is one of the Seven Wonders of the World and is the only one of the wonders that still exists today. Other iconic landmarks in the Egyptian landscape include the Sphinx, the Valley of the Kings, and the temples of Karnak and Luxor. These landmarks are testimony to the rich history and culture of Egypt.
The Egyptian landscape is also home to several natural wonders. The most famous of these is the Nile River, which flows through the country and provides a vital source of water for agriculture and industry.
As of 2016, the Egyptian economy was the largest in the Arab world and the third-largest in Africa, behind Nigeria and South Africa. Egypt is a highly diversified country with a large industrial sector that accounts for about a quarter of its GDP, while agriculture contributes around 14 percent. The service sector is also relatively large and growing, accounting for just over half of Egypt's GDP.
Egypt has a large and diversified economy, with a wide range of industries and sectors. The country's largest industry is tourism, which accounts for about 11 percent of its GDP. Other important industries include agriculture, manufacturing, construction, and mining.
The Egyptian economy is highly reliant on foreign trade and investment. Tourism is a major source of foreign currency, while remittances from Egyptians working abroad are also important. The country has significant reserves of oil and gas, which are major drivers of the economy.
The Egyptian government has embarked on an ambitious program of economic reform in recent years, including privatizing many state-owned enterprises and implementing austerity measures. These reforms have helped to boost growth and reduce inflation, but they have also caused some social unrest.
The Egyptian economy is facing a number of challenges, including high unemployment, rising prices, and large government debt. In addition, the country is dealing with the fallout from the 2011 revolution and the subsequent political instability. Despite these challenges, however, the Egyptian economy continues to grow and is expected to continue doing so in the years ahead.
Agriculture is a vital part of Egypt's economy, accounting for around 20% of the country's GDP. The sector employs over four million people, making it one of the largest employers in the country.
The Nile Valley is the main agricultural region in Egypt, where the majority of the country's crops are grown. The main crops grown in Egypt include wheat, corn, rice, cotton, and sugarcane. Fruit and vegetables are also grown in significant quantities. Egypt is one of the world's largest producers of cotton, with the crop accounting for around 15% of the country's export earnings. Sugar cane is also a major export crop, with Egypt being the world's fourth-largest producer.
Other important agricultural products grown in Egypt include dates, olives, tobacco, and livestock. The country is also a major producer of fish, with the Nile River being a major source of fish for the country. The Egyptian government has placed a great emphasis on developing the agriculture sector in recent years. A number of initiatives have been launched in an effort to improve the productivity of the sector.
The government has also worked to improve infrastructure in rural areas, in order to make it easier for farmers to transport their crops to market. In addition, the government has created a number of agricultural research institutes in order to promote new technologies and practices.
Despite the government's efforts, the agriculture sector in Egypt faces a number of challenges. The country's soil is very arid, making it difficult to grow crops. In addition, water resources are limited, which poses a challenge for irrigation. The Egyptian government is working to address these challenges and to promote the development of the agriculture sector. In order to improve the sector's productivity, the government is investing in research and development, as well as in infrastructure. The Egyptian government is also working to improve the country's trade relations with other nations in order to boost the exports of agricultural products. In addition, the government is working to attract foreign investment in the agriculture sector.
Egypt is the most populous country in the Arab world and the third-most populous on the African continent, with around 95 million inhabitants as of 2019. The vast majority of Egypt's population (around 85%) live near the banks of the Nile River, where only arable land is found. About 40% of Egyptians are under the age of 14.
The population of Egypt is a diverse and cosmopolitan one, with people from all over the world have made their home in the country. Egyptians have long been known for their hospitality and welcoming nature, and this is reflected in the diversity of the population.
Egyptians are predominantly Sunni Muslims, with a small minority of Shia Muslims. Christians, mostly Copts, make up around 10% of the population. There are also small numbers of Jews and other religious minorities. The vast majority of the population speaks Arabic as their first language, although there are also significant numbers of people who speak English, French, and other languages.
The population of Egypt is growing rapidly, with an annual growth rate of around 2%. The population is projected to reach around 150 million by 2030. The median age of the population is 24 years old, and the life expectancy is 72 years. The literacy rate in Egypt is around 77%, with higher rates for men than women. The unemployment rate in Egypt is around 10%, with higher rates for youth and women.
The poverty rate in Egypt is around 21%. The Gini coefficient, a measure of inequality, is around 35%. The population of Egypt is predominantly urban, with around 60% of the population living in cities. Cairo is the largest city in Egypt, with a population of around 18 million. Alexandria, Giza, and Shubra El-Kheima are also major cities. The average household size in Egypt is 4 people. The urbanization rate in Egypt is around 3%.
Egypt is a country with many different religions. The most common religion in Egypt is Islam, which is practiced by around 90% of the population. Other significant religions include Christianity (9%) and Judaism (1%).
There is a great deal of religious diversity within Egypt's Muslim community, with different sects and schools of thought represented. Sunni Islam is the largest branch of Islam in Egypt and is practiced by around 85% of Muslims. Shiite Islam, which makes up around 5% of the Muslim population, is also present, as are smaller groups such as Sufis and Druze.
Christians in Egypt are mostly members of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, which has a long history in the country. There are also smaller numbers of Roman Catholics, Protestants, and other Christian denominations. Judaism has a long history in Egypt, but the Jewish population has declined significantly in recent years and now only numbers in the thousands.
While Islam is the dominant religion in Egypt, freedom of religion is guaranteed by the constitution and generally respected by the government. There are a number of religious minority groups in Egypt, and overall relations between different religious communities are generally good. However, there have been occasional incidents of sectarian violence, particularly against Coptic Christians.
The culture of Egypt has been influenced by many different cultures over the years, including the cultures of the Mediterranean, Africa, Asia, and Europe. The result is a unique blend of traditions that make Egypt an interesting and diverse country.
One of the most noticeable aspects of Egyptian culture is the importance that is placed on family. Families are typically large and extended, with many family members living close to one another. The family is the center of social life in Egypt, and it is not uncommon for families to spend most of their time together.
Another important aspect of Egyptian culture is religion. The majority of Egyptians are Muslim, and Islam plays a significant role in daily life. However, there is also a large Christian minority, and many Egyptians practice traditional animist beliefs as well.
Egypt is a country with a long and rich history. The ancient Egyptian civilization was one of the most advanced in the world, and its legacy can still be seen in the ruins of its pyramids and temples. Today, Egypt is home to many of the world’s most famous archaeological sites, and its museums are filled with treasures from its past.
The Egyptian people are warm and welcoming, and they have a reputation for being hospitable and generous. Visitors to Egypt will find that the locals are quick to offer help and advice and that they are always willing to share their culture with others.
Egypt is a fascinating country with a rich and diverse culture. If you are interested in learning more about this amazing culture, there are many resources available online and in libraries. You can also find several excellent books on the subject. Whatever your interests, you are sure to find something of interest in Egypt.