Hammour can refer to several fish species which are usually associated with the Southwest Asian regions including northern Africa, Iran, and Iraq. It is also used to describe Goldspotted rockcod ( Epinephelus coioides ) and Brown spotted reef cod ( Epinephelus chlorostigma ).
In the Persian Gulf region, the name Hamour refers to a variety of fish species in addition to Goldspotted rockcod and Brown spotted reef cod. This article describes several of these fish species that are referred to as hamour.
Goldspotted rockcod ( Epinephelus coioides ) can be found in the Persian Gulf region, along with some neighboring oceans. It belongs to the family of Labridae and is known by many local names including Hammour , Hammur, Hamour Magol , Hormoz Siah , and Hamour-e-Chabahar .
Rockcod is the largest member of the Labridae family. It has distinctive gold spots on its head, body, and tail which provides a camouflage effect among several other species living in tropical to subtropical waters. It feeds during the day and night on hard corals, crustaceans, mollusks, sponges, and echinoderms. It is commercially fished throughout the Persian Gulf region to be exported for food.
Brown spotted reef cod ( Epinephelus chlorostigma ) can be found in eastern Africa (Kenya), Madagascar, Seychelles, Mauritius; north to Pakistan, India, Bangladesh; south to the Philippines. It is also known as Green Hamour in some areas.
Green hamour can grow up to 71 cm (28 inches) in length and weighs 5 kg (11 pounds). This species has a very distinctive coloration that includes dark green spots over reddish-brown background on its back.
Mangrove red snapper ( Lutjanus argentimaculatus ) is a popular fish that is widely fished in the Persian Gulf region. It has also been introduced into non-native areas including Hawaii, Florida, and Guam where it has become an important food resource.
Lutjanus argentimaculatus belongs to the Lutjanidae family of snappers. It is a carnivorous fish that feeds on other smaller fishes, crustaceans, and mollusks.
Black hamour ( Achoerodus viridis ) can be found in northern Australia and Papua New Guinea. Its maximum length is about 1 meter . Achoerodus viridis is characterized by golden scales on its body.
Giant trevally ( Caranx ignobilis ) can be found in the Persian Gulf region, particularly Bahrain. It belongs to the family of jacks and trevallies . Giant trevally feed mostly on mollusks, crustaceans
Global hamour production
As of 2016, the top five countries in terms of hamour fish production were China, India, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Thailand. Combined, these countries accounted for over 80 percent of the world's total production.
China is by far the largest producer of hamour fish, accounting for nearly 60 percent of the world's total production in 2016. India is the second largest producer, with a production volume of approximately 990 thousand metric tons in the same year. Indonesia, Vietnam, and Thailand are also major producers, accounting for 7 percent, 5 percent, and 3 percent of global production, respectively.
The global hamour fish market is expected to continue growing in the coming years, driven by the growing demand for fish and seafood in developing countries such as China and India. In addition, the increasing popularity of aquaculture is expected to boost the market growth. Aquaculture is a sustainable and efficient method of fish production that can help meet the growing demand for fish without putting a strain on natural resources.