Canadian goldenrod (Solidago canadensis), which produces the pollen that causes hay fever, has hairy stems and leaves with sharp lobes. Other species have hairless stems without thorns. Goldenrods are usually perennial plants from 0.2 to 3 m tall, but some are annual plants. The leaves are produced in a dense basal rosette and alternately along the stem. The inflorescences are often one-sided (secund), with the lower florets possessing sterile ray flowers and the upper florets fertile disc flowers.
Solidago species can be found throughout North America, with some species endemic to the United States, primarily the southern and eastern regions of that country. Solidago is a genus of about 150 species of herbs native to North America, Europe, and Asia.
Canadian goldenrod produces abundant nectar and is a valuable source of honey. Sharp lobed leaves, hairy stems, and secund inflorescences (with the lower florets possessing sterile ray flowers and the upper florets fertile disc flowers). Canada's goldenrod is endemic to regions in North America. Other species are found worldwide.
Comparable genera include Goldenrods, Indianwheat, and Miller's-gold. The genus Solidago has about 150 species total, with the greatest concentration of species diversity in North America. Solidago canadensis is an eastern North American species, meaning it is common in the central and eastern parts of the continent.
The plant is usually a perennial but sometimes an annual, with hairy stems and sharp lobed leaves. It usually has secund inflorescences (the lower florets possess sterile ray flowers and the upper florets are fertile). Canada's goldenrod is endemic to regions in North America. Other species are found worldwide. Can be up to 0.8m tall but on average will stand at roughly 30cm tall. The stems are usually hairy and the leaves have sharp lobes. The basal rosette has sharp-toothed leaves with a dense covering of fine hairs. The goldenrod produces abundant nectar and is often visited by bees for this reason.
Global goldenrod production
Goldenrod is a popular plant used in the production of a variety of products, including essential oils, cosmetics, and dyes. The plant is native to Europe, Asia, and North America, but it is now cultivated all over the world. Goldenrod typically blooms in late summer or early fall.
There are more than 100 species of goldenrod, but the two most commonly used in commercial production are Solidago canadensis and Solidago virgaurea. Goldenrod essential oil is produced by steam distilling the plant's leaves and stems. The oil has a sweet, herbaceous scent and is said to have calming and antidepressant properties. It is used in aromatherapy, massage, and skincare products.
Goldenrod is also a common ingredient in cosmetics and skincare products. The plant's leaves and flowers contain several compounds that are said to have anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, and astringent properties. These same compounds are thought to give goldenrod its characteristic yellow color. Goldenrod extract is commonly used in lotions, creams, and soaps.
Goldenrod is also used to produce a yellow dye. The plant's flowers are harvested and then dried before being ground into a powder. This powder can be used to tint fabrics, yarns, and other materials. Goldenrod dye was once used to color butter and cheese, but it is now mostly used for craft projects.
Goldenrod is a hardy plant that can tolerate a wide range of growing conditions. It prefers full sun and well-drained soil, but it will also grow in partial shade and heavy clay soils. Goldenrod is relatively pest and disease free, making it a low-maintenance plant for gardens and landscapes.
Despite its many uses, goldenrod is considered an invasive species in some parts of the world. The plant can spread rapidly, crowding out native plants. Goldenrod is particularly troublesome in wetland areas where it can alter the natural habitat.