The processing of corn oil involves extraction of the fatty portion from the germ, separation, and removal of most impurities. The residual meal after extraction is used as food for livestock or chickens in Europe, but in the United States, its chief use is in the production of commercial feed. The whole seed may also be ground to make a meal.
The oil of the seed is found in the pericarp, or outer coat, and consists chiefly of glycerides of linoleic, palmitic, oleic, stearic, and myristic acids. It also contains more than 25 non-saponifiable substances, among them being lecithin, choline, calcium- and potassium-salts of phosphoric acid, phytosterols, carotenoids, and lecithin. The kernel also contains about 20% protein, including zein (a similar substance to that present in corn flour), glutelin, albumin, and globulins.
The germ portion is composed of approximately 36% protein, mostly zein; 30% carbohydrates in the form of starch; 12% fat (generally in the form of glycerides); 11% lecithin; and 1.5 to 2% mineral matter. The coarser meal, produced in the initial stages of oil extraction, is fit only for use as feed.
The fine meal after removal of the oil by hydraulic presses or other mechanical means contains 75% to 83% protein, including glutelin, albumin, and globulins. It also contains between 12% and 16% carbohydrate (chiefly in the form of starch), between 1% and 2% mineral matter, and about 3% fat. It is ground to make feed meal or into flour for other uses.
Machinery for the large-scale extraction of corn oil was developed by A.J. Bronson in 1866. The oil has a light yellow color and is used chiefly in table frying, although it also goes into soap, paints, varnishes, linoleum, lithographic ink, cooking fat, margarine, salad oils, leather dressings, and linoleum. Other uses of corn oil are as a lubricant, in the manufacture of linoleum, and for illumination. The residue after extraction is sometimes used as covering for flour sacks or mixed with molasses to make cattle feed.
Global corn oil production
In 2018, the global production of corn oil was estimated at around 27 million metric tons. The United States is the largest producer of corn oil, with an estimated production of 9.5 million metric tons in 2018. Other major producers include Argentina (3.5 million metric tons), Brazil (3.2 million metric tons), and China (2.5 million metric tons).
Corn oil is a type of vegetable oil that is extracted from the kernels of corn. It is an edible oil that is used in a variety of food applications, including cooking, salad dressings, and baking. Corn oil is also used in the production of biofuels.
The majority of corn oil is produced from genetically modified corn. In the United States, approximately 88% of the corn crop is genetically modified.
The main use of corn oil is in food applications. It is commonly used as a cooking oil and can be used in a variety of different ways, including baking, frying, and roasting. Corn oil is also commonly used as a salad dressing oil.
Corn oil is also used in the production of biofuels. Biofuels are renewable fuels that are made from plant or animal materials. Corn oil can be used to produce biodiesel, which is a renewable fuel made from vegetable oils or animal fats.
The United States is the largest producer of corn oil, with an estimated production of 9.5 million metric tons in 2018. Other major producers include Argentina (3.5 million metric tons), Brazil (3.2 million metric tons), and China (2.5 million metric tons).
The global production of corn oil is expected to increase in the coming years as demand for biofuels increases. The production of corn oil is also expected to increase as more countries adopt genetically modified crops.