Chrysanthemum is a genus of perennial flowering plants. They are native to Asia and the Middle East, where they are found in many hundreds of varieties, with nearly 10,000 total known species. Chrysanthemums have very showy flowers which come in all shades of yellow, white, pink, brown, and even blackish purple. However, the most famous chrysanthemum varieties are those with an outer layer of small petaloid rays surrounding a center or disk composed of larger flower-like petals (largely yellow in wild species but other colors in cultivated forms).
Chrysanthemum grows from 20–150 cm tall and as an herbaceous perennial plant or an annual plant. Chrysanthemum requires long days for good vegetative growth and short days for flowering. The species of Chrysanthemum have fibrous root system (shallow rooted plant), herbaceous perennial plant growing to 50-150 cm tall, with deeply lobed leaves and large flower heads, white, yellow, or pink.
Flowering occurs in mid to late summer. Numerous cultivars have been selected and named for particular characteristics of the flower heads. Popular selections with extensively double flowers are known as "Gin-ryu" (Silver Dragon). Other varieties include a smaller, less formal decorative plant suitable as a single specimen in a garden bed or border, or as a low hedge.
Many species are used in Japan, Korea, China, and India in the form of decorative flower arrangements for traditional festivals, weddings, funerals, etc. They are also highly valued in artworks depicting landscapes of these countries with many paintings using chrysanthemum petal juice (puree) as the main brush color. Local varieties are used in flower-arranging competitions.
The number of cultivars is so large that the flower has been called 'the flower of 30,000 flowers'. It is also considered a national floral emblem of South Korea and North Korea. It is the official state flower for November in the U.S. state of New Hampshire. The flower has been chosen as the national flower by the governments of Burma, the Philippines, and Vietnam.
Some species are grown as ornamental plants for their flowers, notably the hardy hydrangea chrysanthemum (C. cinerariifolium); others are grown for food or medicine, including edible chrysanthemum leaves ("suk-hi-soh" in Korea).
The flower is called gyeol-hwa (결화) in Korea. It is used in traditional Korean herb teas, rice cakes, tea snacks, salads, and wraps. The petals are stir-fried with egg and rice cake or meat on the grill. The flowers are also made into jelly, ice cream, or sweetened tea.
Global chrysanthemum production
According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), chrysanthemum production totaled 3.2 million tonnes in 2013, with China accounting for over 80% of the total. Other top producers include South Korea, Japan, India, and Bangladesh. Overall, Asia accounts for more than 90% of global chrysanthemum production.
Chrysanthemum production has seen significant growth in recent years, rising from 2.7 million tonnes in 2009 to 3.2 million tonnes in 2013. The majority of this growth has been driven by China, which has seen its production increase from 2.1 million tonnes in 2009 to 2.6 million tonnes in 2013.
Looking ahead, the FAO projects that global chrysanthemum production will continue to grow, reaching 3.6 million tonnes by 2018. This growth is expected to be driven by continued expansion in China, as well as increases in other Asian countries such as India and Bangladesh.
The chrysanthemum is a popular flower around the world, with its showy blooms making it a popular choice for both ornamental and cut flower purposes. The flower is native to Asia and has been cultivated in China for over 2,000 years. Today, chrysanthemums are grown in many parts of the world, ith China, Japan, and South Korea being the top producers.
The chrysanthemum is a symbol of power and nobility in Chinese culture, and is often used in traditional medicine. In addition, the flowers are used in a variety of dishes, including soups and stews.